Le maraîchage sur sol vivant

Suite à notre premier Wwoofing aux Serres du Moulin de Prada (on en causait ici), on continue nos pérégrinations dans le Maine et Loire, au milieu de nulle-part et près de tout, plus précisément au Champ des Treuls.

Le Champ des Treuls, c’est l’histoire de trois copains qui se sont installés à côté de Châtelais, loin de la ligne 11 du métro parisien, mais près des champs et des serres.

Cela fait maintenant six ans que la bande sévit dans les parages, en produisant une gamme diversifiée de légumes, aromatiques et petits fruits, qu’il distribuent localement via un système de distribution, (Solicibio, chouette initiative locale), de livraisons à la cantine du village et au marché de Laval tous les samedis.

On met les bottes dans l’agro-écologie

On découvre même plus précisément le maraîchage sur sol vivant.

Sur sol vivant?

Oui, ici on parle de techniques de non travail du sol. En se basant sur le modèle de développement d’une forêt, le non travail du sol évite la mécanisation, et favorise la couverture permanente du sol par des couverts végétaux.

Ainsi, le sol vit de lui même, les auxiliaires (vers, faune microbienne) font tout le travail et la terre se fertilise grâce à l’absorption des couvertures (paillages, composts, foin, cultures d’engrais verts, ou autres mulchs…).
Ce système en mode vertueux évite de gaspiller de l’énergie en travaillant le sol, le préserve et lui permet de se régénérer sur le long terme.

 

Exemple sur un chantier de plantation de haricots verts :

1/ Le sol a été couvert de paille et bâché pendant quelques mois, en préparation des plantations d’été. Première étape : on découvre le sol et on arrache les quelques frêles chardons qui ont tenté de se lever :

 

2/ Sous la paille, on découvre une terre grumeleuse, hyper riche et vivante :

 

3/ Rapidement, on installe les gouttes à gouttes et le filet tuteur qui accueillera les futurs haricots :

4/ Puis on sème, c’est hyper facile tellement la terre est tendre. Travailler à genoux, par terre est même agréable.

Trois graines tous les 15 centimètres. On regrette de ne pas pouvoir rester plus longtemps pour voir tout ce petit monde se lever.

Sur trois semaines, on passera pas mal de temps à pailler et couvrir certaines parcelles, qui accueilleront les autres légumes d’été ou d’automne.

 

L’entre-deux

On pensait naïvement en arrivant que l’on tomberait en pleine saison printanière. On repart avec un peu plus de patience, on a rapidement compris que nous étions entre deux saisons, là où se termine la culture des derniers légumes d’hiver alors que les légumes de printemps et d’été se réveillent à peine sous la terre.

 

On récolte à tours de bras des salades, du mesclun, des épinards. On tombe raides-dingues des blettes. Oui, ce truc complément fade qu’on nous servait à la cantine quand nous étions gamins.

Ramassées et cuisinées immédiatement, elles sont transformées sous toutes leurs formes : gratins, lasagnes, sauces diverses pour les pâtes, fondues… L’écriture de cet article, deux semaines après la fin de l’aventure me donne envie d’en manger dévorer.

Et il y a ce mesclun, délicat mélange de feuilles de moutarde, de mizuna, de roquette, du pourpier…

 

Agrémenté de fleurs de roquette et de choux, on en mangerait des baignoire entières.

Un mesclun humain

Humainement, le séjour nous apporte une autre forme de richesse. Fabien et Jérémie sont au petits soins avec nous, prennent le temps de tout nous expliquer et nous font très vite confiance dans l’accomplissement de nos tâches. Les journées passent à cent à l’heure. Nous rencontrons aussi d’autres wwoofeurs, notamment Athena et Mickaël, qui sont en pleine installation dans le Jura et qui profitent une dernière fois de faire un wwofing pour valider leur projet de maraîchage sur sol vivant.

Les activités s’enchaînent, entre le désherbage, le paillage, la récolte, des plantations d’oignons et d’échalotes, des semis, la récupération de paille (le nerf de la guerre). Nous sommes nombreux, les chantiers vont vite, on discute allègrement, c’est joyeux et festif par moments.

 

Quand on sera plus grands, on ira planter des choux

Le séjour s’achève sur une bonne nouvelle : à partir de novembre prochain, nous filerons à Nantes pour apprendre un peu plus concrètement les ficelles du métier et la création / gestion d’entreprise à Nantes. Notre candidature au BPREA a été acceptée, ça y est, on en rêve beaucoup plus concrètement la nuit maintenant. A nous la campagne, les plantes et autres animaux de compagnie.

On reprend vite la route. Après une petite semaine de pause en Auvergne, le rendez-vous est pris pour aller découvrir le maraîchage sur buttes en Ardèche.

Affaire à suivre, évidement.

 

 

 

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